BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
There are only a few studies in the literature regarding the influence of atmospheric pressure on intracranial homeostasis and the mechanism of the relation has not been clarified. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature on parameters of intracranial volume-pressure homeostasis including intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure as well as on blood pressure and body temperature.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
The authors analyzed the influence of atmospheric pressure on intracranial pressure, blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure and body temperature in 14 patients who were monitored because of suspicion of having normal pressure hydrocephalus.
Atmospheric pressure below 760 mm Hg (1013.3 hPa) significantly affects intracranial pressure, arterial blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure and body temperature. Atmospheric pressure above 770 mm Hg (1026.6 hPa) does not affect intracranial pressure, arterial blood pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure or body temperature.
Atmospheric pressure range of 768 mm Hg (1023.9 hPa) to 770 mm Hg (1026.6 hPa) is the border range to preserve intracranial homeostasis, below which qualitative changes of cerebral blood flow occur. In the high range of atmospheric pressure its increase initiates biological protective mechanisms to maintain normal cerebral blood flow. The mechanism involved in the influence of atmospheric pressure and environmental factors in general on intracranial pressure and other parameters of pressure-volume homeostasis has not been explained.”
Nearly everyone with ADHD answers an emphatic yes to the question: “Have you always been more sensitive than others to rejection, teasing, criticism, or your own perception that you have failed or fallen short?” This is the definition of a condition called rejection-sensitive dysphoria. When I ask ADHDers to elaborate on it, they say: “I’m always tense. I can never relax. I can’t just sit there and watch a TV program with the rest of the family. I can’t turn my brain and body off to go to sleep at night. Because I’m sensitive to my perception that other people disapprove of me, I am fearful in personal interactions.” They are describing the inner experience of being hyperactive or hyper-aroused. Remember that most kids after age 14 don’t show much overt hyperactivity, but it’s still present internally, if you ask them about it.
The emotional response to the perception of failure is catastrophic for those with the condition. The term “dysphoria” means “difficult to bear,” and most people with ADHD report that they “can hardly stand it.” They are not wimps; disapproval hurts them much more than it hurts neurotypical people.
If emotional pain is internalized, a person may experience depression and loss of self-esteem in the short term. If emotions are externalized, pain can be expressed as rage at the person or situation that wounded them.
In the long term, there are two personality outcomes. The person with ADHD becomes a people pleaser, always making sure that friends, acquaintances, and family approve of him. After years of constant vigilance, the ADHD person becomes a chameleon who has lost track of what she wants for her own life. Others find that the pain of failure is so bad that they refuse to try anything unless they are assured of a quick, easy, and complete success. Taking a chance is too big an emotional risk. Their lives remain stunted and limited.
For many years, rejection-sensitive dysphoria has been the hallmark of what has been called atypical depression. The reason that it was not called “typical” depression is that it is not depression at all but the ADHD nervous system’s instantaneous response to the trigger of rejection.”